Detection of pathogen exposure in African buffalo using non-specific markers of inflammation

Show simple item record Glidden, Caroline K. Beechler, Brianna Buss, Peter Erik Charleston, Bryan De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari Maree, Francois Frederick Muller, Timothy Perez-Martin, Eva Scott, Katherine Anne Van Schalkwyk, Ockert Louis Jolles, Anna 2018-03-12T09:40:24Z 2018-03-12T09:40:24Z 2018-01-11
dc.description.abstract Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Tracking common host immune responses indicative of recent infection may have potential as a non-specific diagnostic approach for disease surveillance. The challenge to immunologists is to identify the most promising markers, which ideally should be highly conserved across pathogens and host species, become upregulated rapidly and consistently in response to pathogen invasion, and remain elevated beyond clearance of infection. This study combined an infection experiment and a longitudinal observational study to evaluate the utility of non-specific markers of inflammation [NSMI; two acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and TNF-α)] as indicators of pathogen exposure in a wild mammalian species, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Specifically, in the experimental study, we asked (1) How quickly do buffalo mount NSMI responses upon challenge with an endemic pathogen, foot-and-mouth disease virus; (2) for how long do NSMI remain elevated after viral clearance and; (3) how pronounced is the difference between peak NSMI concentration and baseline NSMI concentration? In the longitudinal study, we asked (4) Are elevated NSMI associated with recent exposure to a suite of bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens in a wild population? Among the four NSMI that we tested, haptoglobin showed the strongest potential as a surveillance marker in African buffalo: concentrations quickly and consistently reached high levels in response to experimental infection, remaining elevated for almost a month. Moreover, elevated haptoglobin was indicative of recent exposure to two respiratory pathogens assessed in the longitudinal study. We hope this work motivates studies investigating suites of NSMI as indicators for pathogen exposure in a broader range of both pathogen and host species, potentially transforming how we track disease burden in natural populations. en_ZA
dc.description.department Microbiology and Plant Pathology en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2018 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Both experimental and longitudinal studies were supported by the USDA-NIFA AFRI grant # 2013-67015-21291and by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant # BB/L011085/1 as part of the joint USDA-NSF- NIH-BBSRC Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases program. C. Glidden was supported by ARCS and NSF GRFP fellowships. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Glidden CK, Beechler B, Buss PE, Charleston B, de Klerk-Lorist L-M, Maree FF, Muller T, Pérez-Martin E, Scott KA, van Schalkwyk OL and Jolles A (2018) Detection of Pathogen Exposure in African Buffalo Using Non-Specific Markers of Inflammation. Front. Immunol. 8:1944. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01944. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1664-3224 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01944
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Frontiers Media en_ZA
dc.rights © 2018 Glidden, Beechler, Buss, Charleston, de Klerk-Lorist, Maree, Muller, Pérez-Martin, Scott, van Schalkwyk and Jolles. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). en_ZA
dc.subject Emerging infectious disease en_ZA
dc.subject Disease surveillance en_ZA
dc.subject Wildlife en_ZA
dc.subject Inflammation en_ZA
dc.subject Haptoglobin en_ZA
dc.subject Serum amyloid A en_ZA
dc.subject IFNγ en_ZA
dc.subject TNF-α en_ZA
dc.subject Non-specific markers of inflammation (NSMI) en_ZA
dc.subject Amyloid A protein en_ZA
dc.subject Gamma interferon en_ZA
dc.subject Haptoglobin en_ZA
dc.subject Tumor necrosis factor en_ZA
dc.subject Viral clearance en_ZA
dc.subject Sensitivity and specificity en_ZA
dc.subject Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) en_ZA
dc.subject Respiratory tract disease en_ZA
dc.subject Animal experiment en_ZA
dc.subject Animal model en_ZA
dc.subject Disease surveillance en_ZA
dc.subject Enzyme linked immunosorbent assayexposure en_ZA
dc.subject Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) en_ZA
dc.subject Immune response en_ZA
dc.subject Mycoplasma bovis en_ZA
dc.subject Nonhuman en_ZA
dc.subject Paramyxovirina en_ZA
dc.subject Equality control en_ZA
dc.subject African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) en_ZA
dc.title Detection of pathogen exposure in African buffalo using non-specific markers of inflammation en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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