BACKGROUND : The PA skills of phonological blending and segmentation and auditory word
discrimination relate directly to literacy and may be weak in English second language (EL2)
learners. In South Africa, literacy skills have been found to be poor in especially EL2 learners.
OBJECTIVES : The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of vowel perception and
production intervention on phonemic awareness (PA) and literacy skills of Setswana first
language (L1) learners. These learners are English second language (EL2) learners in Grade 3.
METHOD : The present study employed a quasi-experimental, pre-test–post-test design.
RESULTS : The findings of low–literacy skill levels concurred with previous investigations.
However, post-test results of intervention in PA seemed to improve the literacy skills of EL2
CONCLUSION : PA skills should be a crucial part of the literacy curriculum in South Africa.