Alterations in male reproductive hormones in relation to environmental DDT exposure

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dc.contributor.author Bornman, Maria S. (Riana)
dc.contributor.author Delport, Rhena
dc.contributor.author Farías, Paulina
dc.contributor.author Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard
dc.contributor.author Patrick, Sean Mark
dc.contributor.author Millar, Robert P.
dc.contributor.author De Jager, Christiaan
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-29T12:24:10Z
dc.date.issued 2018-04
dc.description.abstract DDT [1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] compounds are used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) to control malaria mosquitoes. DDT is an endocrine disruptor chemical in experimental conditions, but little is known of adverse effects related to living conditions with continual uptake across a time span by all possible means of exposure. Based on estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects found in animal studies, we hypothesized that chronic DDT/DDE exposures in men may be associated with changes in male reproductive hormones. We tested this hypothesis by compared the magnitude and direction of associations between DDT and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) concentrations and male reproductive hormones in samples collected from IRS and non-IRS areas. We sampled a cross-section of 535 men (aged 18–40 years). Men living in IRS villages had significantly higher DDT and DDE concentrations compared with men from non-IRS villages. Men with DDT or DDE uptake (as reflected in detectable plasma concentrations) had significantly higher total-, free and bio-available testosterone (T), and lower follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations; lower luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were only evident with DDT uptake. To establish a dose-dependent effect, four sub-categories were defined. Men with the highest DDT (74–519 μg/g) and DDE (173–997 μg/g) concentrations had significantly higher total-, free and bio-available T, and lower FSH concentrations compared with subjects with non-detectable isomer concentrations. Estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in men with DDT and DDE concentrations in both the third (DDE: 27–172 μg/g; DDT: 5–73 μg/g) and fourth (DDE: 173–997 μg/g; DDT: 74–519 μg/g) categories. Men from IRS villages were significantly more likely to have higher total and bioavailable T as well as higher estradiol concentrations OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.2, 3.2); OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.6, 4.0) and OR = 2.3 (95% CI 1.3, 4.1) compared to men from non-IRS villages, after controlling for age, BMI, personal use of pesticides, and smoking. Men living in IRS villages with life-long exposure (17.6 (±6) years) at the current residence with multiple exposure modalities incurred the highest degree of physiological imbalance over and above circulating isomer concentrations. Further studies are needed to elucidate the health implications of these findings. en_ZA
dc.description.department Chemical Pathology en_ZA
dc.description.department School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) en_ZA
dc.description.department Urology en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-04-01
dc.description.librarian hj2018 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Grants from the MRC and NRF awarded to Prof Christiaan de Jager. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/envint en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Bornman, M., Delport, R., Farías, P. et al., Alterations in male reproductive hormones in relation to environmental DDT exposure, Environment International (2018) 113: 281-289, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.039. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0160-4120 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-6750 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.039
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/63784
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environment International. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environment International, vol. 113, pp. 281-289, 2018. doi : 10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.039. en_ZA
dc.subject 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) en_ZA
dc.subject Estradiol en_ZA
dc.subject Malaria en_ZA
dc.subject Male reproductive hormones en_ZA
dc.subject Testosterone en_ZA
dc.subject Diseases en_ZA
dc.subject Endocrinology en_ZA
dc.subject Luteinizing hormones en_ZA
dc.subject Indoor residual spraying en_ZA
dc.subject Follicle stimulating hormone en_ZA
dc.subject Experimental conditions en_ZA
dc.subject Rural areas en_ZA
dc.subject Malaria control en_ZA
dc.subject Isomers en_ZA
dc.subject Hormones en_ZA
dc.subject Ethylene en_ZA
dc.title Alterations in male reproductive hormones in relation to environmental DDT exposure en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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