Tremors in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation

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dc.contributor.author De Lange, Stephanie S.
dc.contributor.author Fuller, Andrea
dc.contributor.author Haw, Anna
dc.contributor.author Hofmeyr, Markus
dc.contributor.author Buss, Peter Erik
dc.contributor.author Miller, Michele
dc.contributor.author Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-11T07:10:43Z
dc.date.available 2018-01-11T07:10:43Z
dc.date.issued 2017-02-24
dc.description.abstract Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions. Spearman and Pearson correlations were used to test for associations between variables. Tremor intensity measured objectively by activity loggers correlated well (p < 0.0001; r2 = 0.9) with visual observations. Tremor intensity was greatest when animals were severely hypoxaemic and acidaemic. Tremor intensity correlated strongly and negatively with partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) (p = 0.0003; r2 = 0.9995) and potential of hydrogen (pH) (p = 0.02, r2 = 0.97). It correlated strongly and positively with adrenaline concentrations (p = 0.003; r2 = 0.96), and adrenaline correlated strongly and negatively with PaO2 (p = 0.03; r2 = 0.95) and pH (p = 0.03; r2 = 0.94). Therefore, hypoxaemia and acidaemia were likely associated with the intensity of tremors through their activation of the release of tremorgenic levels of adrenaline. Tremors can be reduced if circulating adrenaline is reduced, and this can be achieved by the administration of butorphanol plus oxygen insufflation. Furthermore, to assist with reducing the risks associated with rhinoceros immobilisation, tremor intensity could be used as a clinical indicator of respiratory and metabolic compromise. en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.department Production Animal Studies en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2018 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation (NRF), the Brain Function Research Group, at the University of the Witwatersrand, and the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Pretoria. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.jsava.co.za en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation De Lange, S.S., Fuller, A., Haw, A., Hofmeyr, M., Buss, P., Miller, M. et al., 2017, ‘Tremors in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation’, Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 88(0), a1466. https://DOI.org/ 10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1466. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1019-9128 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 2224-9435 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1466
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/63476
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher AOSIS Open Journals en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Mechanisms en_ZA
dc.subject Tremors en_ZA
dc.subject Risks en_ZA
dc.subject White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) en_ZA
dc.subject Etorphine–azaperone en_ZA
dc.subject Immobilisation en_ZA
dc.title Tremors in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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