Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes

Show simple item record Wolf, Tanja Esther Schaebs, F.S. Bennett, Nigel C., 1961- Burroughs, R.E.J. (Richard) Ganswindt, Andre 2017-12-04T06:29:45Z 2018-01
dc.description.abstract In many mammal species, androgen levels in males are elevated during periods of mating activity, often to facilitate aggressive behavior between males over access to fertile females. However, this pattern might be less obvious in species with a rather low male-male aggression rate, or in those that are not strictly seasonal breeders. A complex social structure, as well as additional social and environmental factors, might add more to the complexity. Here, we applied a non-invasive method to monitor fecal androgen metabolite (fAM) levels in free-ranging giraffe bulls over a period of months to examine longitudinal patterns of androgen metabolite concentrations in relation to observed male sexual behavior in different age classes. Giraffes are non-seasonal breeders, living in a fission–fusion social system and males show a roaming strategy to search for fertile females. Our results show that season has an impact on fAM levels in free-ranging giraffes, with respective steroid concentrations being higher in summer. In the presence of females, fAM levels of bulls are significantly higher compared to when found in all-male groups, with old adult bulls showing the highest fAM levels. In contrast, young adult bulls have overall slightly higher fAM levels compared to old adult bulls when residing in all male groups. Sexual behavior increases fAM levels only in old adult bulls. en_ZA
dc.description.department Anatomy and Physiology en_ZA
dc.description.department Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies en_ZA
dc.description.department Mammal Research Institute en_ZA
dc.description.department Zoology and Entomology en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-01-01
dc.description.librarian hj2017 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation, South Africa; a postgraduate bursary from the DST-NRF SARChI chair for Mammal behavioural ecology and physiology to (NCB); Novartis/South African Veterinary Foundation Wildlife Research Fund. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Wolf, T.E., Schaebs, F.S., Bennett, N.C., Burroughs, R. & Ganswindt, A. 2017, 'Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes', General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 255, pp. 19-25. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0016-6480 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1095-6840 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.09.028
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in General and Comparative Endocrinology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 255, pp. 19-25, 2017. doi : 10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.09.028. en_ZA
dc.subject Fecal androgen metabolite (fAM) en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.subject Sexual activity en_ZA
dc.subject Giraffe bulls en_ZA
dc.subject Androgens en_ZA
dc.subject Feces en_ZA
dc.subject Non-invasive hormone monitoring en_ZA
dc.title Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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