Diplodia sapinea is an important pathogen of pine trees in plantations and urban areas in many parts of the world. This pathogen has recently also been isolated from diseased Cedrus atlantica, C. deodara and Picea omorika planted as ornamentals across the Western Balkans. The aim of this study was to consider the host range of D. sapinea in Serbia and Montenegro. Diplodia sapinea was identified from a broader collection of Botryosphaeriaceae from the Western Balkans region, based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and the translation elongation factor 1α (TEF 1- α). The D. sapinea isolates were obtained from sixteen tree species in the genera Abies, Cedrus, Chamaecyparis, Juniperus, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga and Fagus. Four species represented new hosts in the Balkans, and this is the first report of D. sapinea from F. sylvatica anywhere in the world. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on the tree hosts from which D. sapinea was isolated, as well as on P. abies, Thuja occidentalis, Prunus laurocerasus, Eucalyptus grandis and P. patula. Inoculations were made on seedlings in the field, in the greenhouse or on freshly detached branches. Inoculations on P. pungens, P. omorika, P. abies, P. menziesii, A. concolor, P. nigra and P. sylvestris resulted in death of the seedlings 5–16 weeks after inoculation. Diplodia sapinea produced lesions on J. horizontalis and P. patula seedlings and F. sylvatica cut branches. Reciprocal inoculations showed that D. sapinea is not a pine-specific pathogen, causing disease on tree species, including those from which it had not been isolated. Not surprisingly, the pathogen was most aggressive on some species of Pinaceae.