Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs

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dc.contributor.author Mzingwane, Mayibongwe L.
dc.contributor.author Tiemessen, Caroline T.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-06-28T13:32:17Z
dc.date.issued 2017-03 en
dc.description.abstract The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia. Some anatomical reservoirs that may harbor such cells include the brain and the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and other lymphoid organs, and the genital tract. The presence of immune cells and other HIV susceptible cells, occurring in differing compositions in anatomical reservoirs, coupled with variable and poor drug penetration that results in suboptimal drug concentrations in some sites, are all likely factors that fuel the continued low-level replication and persistent viremia during treatment. Latently, HIV-infected CD4+ T cells harboring replication-competent virus, HIV cell-to-cell spread, and HIV-infected T cell homeostatic proliferation due to chronic immune activation represent further drivers of this persistent HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy. en_ZA
dc.description.department Medical Virology en
dc.description.embargo 2018-03-30
dc.description.uri http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1654 en
dc.identifier.citation Mzingwane, M.L. & Tiemessen, C.T. 2017, 'Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs', Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 27, no. 2, art. no. e1924, pp. 1-12. en
dc.identifier.issn 1099-1654 (online) en
dc.identifier.issn 1052-9276 (print) en
dc.identifier.other 10.1002/rmv.1924 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/61178
dc.language.iso English en
dc.publisher Wiley en
dc.rights © 2017 John Wiley and Sons Ltd. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article : 'Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs', Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 27, no. 2, art. no. e1924, pp. 1-12, 2017, doi : 10.1002/rmv.1924. The definite version is available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1654. en
dc.subject Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs en
dc.subject Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) en
dc.subject Cellular reservoir en
dc.subject Central nervous system (CNS) en
dc.subject Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) en
dc.subject Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) en
dc.subject Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) en
dc.title Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en


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