Technology in this age is ubiquitous and is changing the way that individuals live, work and play. In line with this, South African education has to change regularly to meet the requirements set out by the Department of Basic Education, including the development of learning outcomes for the 21st century. This study therefore explored teachers' and learners' experiences of Technology-based Teaching and Learning (TbTL) in the Foundation Phase. Qualitative case study research methods such as photovoice, narratives, semi-structured interviews, opinion pieces and field notes were conducted within three cases in order to understand the experiences of TbTL in the Foundation Phase. Data were examined through a conceptual lens that was grounded in the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework and yielded the following themes: technological tools, 21st century skills, Technology-based Teaching and Learning itself and mind the gaps. Finally, the novel, original contribution that this study makes is a framework for TbTL in the Foundation Phase. In essence this framework is relevant to understand teachers' and learners' experiences of the phenomenon of TbTL in the Foundation Phase. It is not a step-by-step guide as such but rather an indication of the core elements that are important to consider by any role players using TbTL in this phase. It is anticipated that using this framework as a guide to TbTL in the Foundation Phase will assist in creating teachers and learners who are digitally literate, lifelong learners with developed 21st century skills.