Since the Questionnaire dealt essentially with African cattle and only incidentally with cattle in certain countries outside Africa, it seems advisable to conclude by referring firstly to the position within
Africa and secondly to the position without Africa.
(a) AFRICAN CATTLE.
(1) While the replies to the Questionnaire provide a proportion of the data presented, it is manifest that the scope of the investigation was extended chiefly by including territories not originally circularised. In the vast majority of cases it was the veterinary officials who furnished the particulars required.
(2) Owing to the interval which has elapsed between the issue of the Questionnaire and the completion of this compilation, much light has been thrown upon the subject of African Cattle Husbandry generally, e.g. origin, conformation and classification. This recent information accordingly rules out certain questions which were asked in 1931. A striking example is the territorial distribution of cattle types, a description of which was given in a paper at the 1935 (September) meeting of the South African Veterinary Medical Association [see Jl. S.A. Vet. Med. Assn. VII (1) 1936].
(3) It was realised that the incorporation of information bearing on environmental features and production would be unsatisfactory.
Not only were the replies in some instances silent in this respect, but in others, the details were exceedingly meagre.
(4) Accordingly it was felt that it would be best to concentrate upon a description of the cattle types and their distribution, but where some feature referred to in the previous paragraph had received special attention, e.g. milk production by Anderson in Kenya, it was included.
(5) Of the several methods possible to describe the distribution of the several types, it was decided to take the logical, namely the territories occurring along the various migration routes in their chronological order.
(6) Where territories have been omitted, e.g. Italian and Spanish colonies, this is due to the absence of details, although in most cases it is possible to deduce the state of affairs.
(7) There is little doubt but that originally all cattle, except the ancient Hamitic Longhorn of Egypt, came from Asia. All migrations passed through North-East Africa, chiefly Egypt, except the Shorthorned Zebu which was also introduced along the east coast of Africa as far South as the Zambesi River.
(8) The probable migration paths to and in Africa and the likely periods this occurred are shown in Map I.
(9) The present approximate distribution is shown in Map II, due allowance having been made for Glossina and desert regions, e.g. Sahara desert.
(10) Of still greater importance would be a map indicating the approximate numerical distribution of cattle such as appearing in
Bosman's Cattle Farming in South Africa. In this case a dot represents 1,000 head of cattle in his Map I.
(11) Apart from the distribution having been indicated in Map
II, the position has been summarised at the end of the description of each migration, e.g. pp. 644-645 and 672-674.
(12) Although only of secondary consideration the information presented in the contribution may be helpful to anthropologists.
Dart (1933) states that "There is no more vital aspect of anthropology than the study of domestic animals". It is therefore hoped from an anthropological aspect that the evidence afforded by the migration routes and present distribution will be at least as valuable as that derived from other branches of science, particularly the study of human types including cranial measurements, blood groups, languages, customs, utensils, etc.
(13) A striking fact is that the French authorities possess excellent text-books on the livestock of their colonies, whereas such information concerning British territories is scattered throughout annual reports.
(14) Investigation is required regarding the distribution of cattle types in West Africa and upon such matters as degeneration of horns (unassociated with grading up with Brachyceros) as described along the littoral of French Dahomey and in the Transkei, Union of South Africa (Thompson, 1932), genetics of coloration, hump, etc.
(15) It is noteworthy that no veterinary department exists in either Gambia or Sierra Leone.
(16) This survey indicates that in addition to the three parent stocks (Hamitic Longhorn, Brachyceros and Lateral-horned Zebu) and the three derived types (Shorthorned Zebu, Sanga and Lyrehorned Zebu), there are possibly two other distinct derived types.
These are both in West Africa and result from the intermixture of
Brachyceros and Hamitic Longhorn in the one case (Mandingo), and Brachyceros and the thoracic humped Zebu in the other.
(17) Finally, the photographs reproduced constitute the most comprehensive set yet published.
(b) EXTRA-AFRICAN CATTLE.
Although the original intention of the Questionnaire was to investigate the relationship of certain African and extra-African cattle, based on conformation or coloration, recent independent observations, chiefly by Epstein, rule out the necessity of proceeding in this direction.
As a matter of interest, however, a resume has been given of the position in the countries concerned.
The articles have been scanned in colour with a HP Scanjet 5590; 300dpi.
Adobe Acrobat XI Pro was used to OCR the text and also for the merging and conversion to the final presentation PDF-format.