This study analyses the faunal remains of four Iron Age sites from eastern Botswana, namely Phoenix 17, Phoenix 18, Thabadimasego and Dukwe 25. Phoenix 17, Phoenix 18 and Thabadimasego date to the 9th century AD, and Dukwe 25 to the 15th century AD. The sites are significant as they date to critical time periods during which we see shifts in the socio-political organisation, towards increasing social complexity in the 9th century AD, and the establishment of powerful states in the 15th century AD. By comparing the results of Phoenix 17, Phoenix 18, Thabadimasego and Dukwe 25, it will also be possible to examine whether these sites point to regional, chronological or socio-cultural variability. Other sites in eastern Botswana together with the sites in this study, can give broad understanding into animal exploitation patterns during these time periods, specifically the relative use, social use and exploitation of animals. Understanding animal exploitation patterns can assist researchers in exploring the impact these communities had on their environment. In particular, how they reacted and responded to diverse environments, rich in wild fauna, such as the Makgadikgadi.