BACKGROUND : Entada abyssinica is a plant traditionally used against gastrointestinal bacterial infections. Eight compounds
including three flavonoids, three terpenoids, a monoglyceride and a phenolic compound isolated from E.
abyssinica were investigated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
RESULTS : Compounds 7 and 2 had remarkable activity against Salmonella typhimurium with the lowest respective
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.56 and 3.12 μg/mL. The antioxidant assay gave IC50 values varied
from 0.48 to 2.87 μg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, from 2.53 to 17.04 μg/mL in the 2,2′-Azinobis
(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay and from 1.43 to 103.98 μg/mL in the
FRAP assay. Compounds had relatively low cytotoxicity (LC50 values ranging from 22.42 to 80.55 μg/mL) towards Vero
cells. Ursolic acid had the most potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells with LC50 values of 9.62 and
4.56 μg/mL respectively, and selectivity index values of 7.32 and 15.44 respectively.
CONCLUSION : Our findings suggest that among the terpenoid and flavonoid compounds studied, entadanin (compound
7) possess tremendous antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and could be developed for the treatment
of bacterial diseases.