The impacts associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction will be cumulative in nature
and will most likely occur on a regional scale, highlighting the importance of using strategic decision-making and
management tools. Managing possible impacts responsibly is extremely important in a water scarce country
such as South Africa, versus countries where more water may be available for UOG extraction activities. This
review article explains the possible biophysical and socioeconomic
impacts associated with UOG extraction within the
South African context and how these complex impacts interlink.
Relevant policy and governance frameworks to manage these
impacts are also highlighted.