The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical work. However, scattered in the literature are diverse challenges linked to the production and/or use of improvised SEEMs. Thus, the purpose of the literature review presented here was to design a framework useful in the reduction of these challenges. In this regard, we systematically gathered, characterised and clarified the challenges, in addition to collecting and reflecting on ways of reducing them. This enabled us to design the framework which focuses on educator learning and practice in the improvisation of SEEMs under specified conditions. Regarding the implementation of the framework, we have discussed the role that stakeholders including professional development providers and researchers may play.