The links of social–relational concepts (SRC) of personality identified in South Africa with the Five Factor
Model (FFM), Interpersonal Relatedness (IR), social desirability, and prosocialness were examined. In
Study 1 (N = 1483), the SRC defined two factors (positive and negative) distinct from the FFM, more
strongly linked to relational than to tradition-focused IR aspects and to impression management than
to deception. Links to tradition-focused concepts were stronger, and scores on positive SRC higher in
Blacks than in Whites. In Study 2 (N = 325), SRC explained substantial variance in prosocialness above
the FFM. In Study 3 (N = 1283), the SRC were replicated in a Dutch multicultural sample. The findings suggest
expanding the FFM with respect to social–relational functioning.