Re-establishment of biting mouthparts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae : Scarabaeinae) feeding on plant litter-old structures reacquired or new ones evolved?

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dc.contributor.author Holster, Peter
dc.contributor.author Scholtz, Clarke H.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-12-19T07:42:26Z
dc.date.available 2016-12-19T07:42:26Z
dc.date.issued 2011-08
dc.description.abstract Evolution of dung beetle (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) mouthparts for eating moist, fresh dung has led to a loss of any ability to chew. However, the desert-living genus Pachysoma, probably evolved from a wet-dung feeding, Scarabaeus-like ancestor, has switched to dry faecal pellets (of rodents or small ruminants) and plant litter that might require re-establishment of chewing. Indeed, gut contents of a litter-feeding Pachysoma species indicate efficient food comminution prior to ingestion. Cutting and grinding mouthpart structures in six species, of two lineages and with different food preferences, are described and compared with homologous structures in wet-dung feeding Scarabaeus species. In Pachysoma, cutting and breaking of large food items is performed by a clypeal scraper, a prominent epipharyngeal tooth and large maxillary galeal hooks. Further comminution is achieved by a large, grinding area evolved on the mandibular molae. Interspecific differences and the probable function and evolution of these structures are discussed. Particularly the unique tools for cutting/breaking are novel structures and not re-acquired normal biting mouthparts. en_ZA
dc.description.department Zoology and Entomology en_ZA
dc.description.librarian hb2016 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship CHS‟s research is partially funded by the South African National Research Foundation. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-4687 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Holter, P & Scholtz, CH 2011, 'Re-establishment of biting mouthparts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae : Scarabaeinae) feeding on plant litter-old structures reacquired or new ones evolved?', Journal of Morphology, vol. 272, no. 8, pp. 1007-1016. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0362-2525 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1097-4687 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1002/jmor.10968
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/58423
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Wiley en_ZA
dc.rights © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article : Re-establishment of biting mouthparts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae : Scarabaeinae) feeding on plant litter-old structures reacquired or new ones evolved? in Journal of Morphology, vol. 272, no. 8, pp. 1007-1016, 2011. doi : 10.1002/jmor.10968. The definite version is available at : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.comjournal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-4687. en_ZA
dc.subject Desert adaptations en_ZA
dc.subject Detritus feeding en_ZA
dc.subject Dung feeding en_ZA
dc.subject Evolution en_ZA
dc.subject Mouthpart morphology en_ZA
dc.subject Pachysoma en_ZA
dc.subject Dung beetle en_ZA
dc.title Re-establishment of biting mouthparts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae : Scarabaeinae) feeding on plant litter-old structures reacquired or new ones evolved? en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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