Resolving species limits within the genus Miniopterus has traditionally been complicated by the presence of cryptic species
with overlapping morphological features. We use molecular techniques, cranio-dental characters and tragus shape to
describe a new species of Miniopterus from Mozambique, M. mossambicus. Miniopterus mossambicus shows > 12% divergence
in cytochrome-b sequence from its nearest congeners (the Malagasy M. gleni and M. griveaudi) and > 15% divergence
from the morphologically similar M. natalensis, M. fraterculus and M. minor (all of which occur in southern and
eastern Africa). There is considerable overlap in cranio-dental characters of the southern African species, particularly M.
natalensis and M. mossambicus. However, tragus shape and multivariate comparisons of skull measurements can be used
to separate these species. Based on morphological comparisons of museum specimens, this species may also be present
in neighbouring Malawi and Zimbabwe, suggesting that it is probably distributed widely in south-central Africa.