Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

Show simple item record Williams, J.H. (June Heather) Whitehead, Zandri Van Wilpe, Erna 2016-11-25T08:36:22Z 2016-11-25T08:36:22Z 2016-09-09
dc.description.abstract Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed. en_ZA
dc.description.department Animal and Wildlife Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2016 en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Williams, J.H., Whitehead, Z. & Van Wilpe, E., 2016, ‘Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa’, Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 87(1), a1352. 10.4102/jsava.v87i1.1352. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1019-9128 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 2224-9435 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.4102/jsava.v87i1.1352
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher AOSIS OpenJournals en_ZA
dc.rights © 2016. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Paraquat en_ZA
dc.subject Lungs en_ZA
dc.subject Intoxication en_ZA
dc.subject Oxygen-free radicals en_ZA
dc.subject Membrane damage en_ZA
dc.subject Cell death en_ZA
dc.subject Paraquat toxicity en_ZA
dc.subject Animals en_ZA
dc.title Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record