The circumscription of the genus Acremonium (Hypocreales) was recently reviewed on the basis of a DNA
phylogenetic study. Several species were subsequently transferred to Sarocladium, but the relationships between
both genera remained unresolved. Based on multilocus phylogenetic inferences combined with phenotypic data,
we have revised the species concepts within Sarocladium and some genetically related species of Acremonium.
As a result of these studies, six species are described as new, viz. S. bifurcatum, S. gamsii, S. hominis, S. pseudostrictum,
S. subulatum and S. summerbellii. In addition, the new combinations S. implicatum and S. terricola are
proposed for A. implicatum and A. terricola, respectively. Sarocladium attenuatum is confirmed as synonym of the
type species of the genus, S. oryzae. An epitype and neotype are also introduced for S. oryzae and S. implicatum,
respectively. Although Sarocladium species have traditionally been considered as important phytopathogens, the
genus also contains opportunistic human pathogens. This study extends the spectrum of clinical species that could
be diagnosed as causal agents of human infections.