Sucrose sensitivity of honey bees Is differently affected by dietary protein and a neonicotinoid pesticide

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dc.contributor.author Demares, Fabien J.
dc.contributor.author Crous, Kendall L.
dc.contributor.author Pirk, Christian Walter Werner
dc.contributor.author Nicolson, Sue W.
dc.contributor.author Human, Hannelie
dc.date.accessioned 2016-07-18T07:34:19Z
dc.date.available 2016-07-18T07:34:19Z
dc.date.issued 2016-06-07
dc.description S1 Fig. Daily nutrient intake is influenced by the amount of dietary protein, but not by the THX pesticide dose. The panels show the effect of THX doses among different diets. The top panel is the choice experiment, where bees were able to regulate their nutrient intake. The four panels below the line represent the no-choice experiment with the four different fixed diets (indicated at the top-left corner of each panel). For each panel, days are indicated on the x-axis, from day 1 to day 14, while the four THX doses are represented on the y-axis. Nutrient intake (in mg/bee) is colour-scaled. Maximal intake is achieved during the choice experiment, around day 6, independent of THX dose. The patterns of daily consumption of P:C ratios 1:30 and 1:3 diets are similar to those in the choice experiment, although the maximum intake is around day 7. In contrast, when dietary protein is low or absent, daily consumption is reduced, especially on the second week. en_ZA
dc.description S1 Table. Statistical data. (A) Choice experiment. (B) No-Choice experiment–THX Dose effect. (C) No-Choice experiment–Dietary protein effect. en_ZA
dc.description S2 Table. Spearman correlations. en_ZA
dc.description S3 Table. Cumulative consumption and details of the different amount of nutrient eaten during the Choice Experiment. Every values are in mg/bee ±s.e.m., except for the P:C ratio columns. The “Cumulative Consumption” column is the same as the last column in Table 1. Honey bees were offered the choice between two unbalanced diets, differing in their P:C ratios (1:3 and 1:30). First, consumption of each diet is assessed and proportions of protein and carbohydrate are calculated. The total protein consumption is the addition of the protein parts eaten from the 1:3 diet and the 1:30 diet; the same goes for the carbohydrate part. P:C ratios are calculated by dividing the total protein consumption by the total carbohydrate consumption. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed. en_ZA
dc.description.department Zoology and Entomology en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2016 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship FJD is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the University of Pretoria. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.plosone.org en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Démares FJ, Crous KL, Pirk CWW, Nicolson SW, Human H (2016) Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156584. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156584. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.other 10.1371/journal.pone.0156584
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/55848
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights © 2016 Démares et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Crop protection en_ZA
dc.subject European Union (EU) en_ZA
dc.subject Insect nervous system en_ZA
dc.subject Honeybee (Apis mellifera) en_ZA
dc.title Sucrose sensitivity of honey bees Is differently affected by dietary protein and a neonicotinoid pesticide en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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