This article proposes a transmission pricing method that integrates the
transmission loss component with the distribution factors enhanced transmission pricing
method for the pool electricity market. Two new schemes are proposed: (1) New Scheme
1—the losses are allocated only for the locational charges and (2) New Scheme 2—the
losses are allocated for both locational and non-locational charges. Both methods use
justified distribution factors to evaluate the transmission line flows more accurately. The
transmission losses are allocated among the market users by integrating the generalized
generation justified distribution factors and generalized load justified distribution factors
with the modified pro-rata method. The proposed approach is tested on the 10-machine
IEEE 39-bus (New England) system to prove its effectiveness. Results show that the
proposed method is able to reconcile transmission service cost fairly.
Sherman, Gayle G.; Mazanderani, Ahmad Haeri; Barron, Peter; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Niit, Ronelle; Okobi, Margaret; Puren, Adrian; Jackson, Debra J.; Goga, Ameena Ebrahim(Edinburgh University Global Health Society, 2017-06)
BACKGROUND : South Africa has utilized three independent
data sources to measure the impact of its program
for the prevention of mother–to–child transmission
(PMTCT) of HIV. These include the South African
OBJECTIVES : In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother-to child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1 to 3.4] to 5.9% ...
Braack, L.E.O.; De Vos, Valerius; Verwoerd, Daniel Wynand(Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1990)
Carrion-frequenting blow-flies (Chrysomyia albiceps and C. marginalis) were allowed 4 days of feeding on ³²P-orthophosphate-labelled blood or an Impala carcass (Aepyceros melampus) in the northern Kruger National Park, ...