Cognitive enhancement involves the non-medical use of illicit and/or prescription drugs, such as agents prescribed for attention
deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, usually in order to stay awake and to counteract fatigue and loss of
concentration, generally in the context of high workload and stress. Growing interest in taking prescription stimulant drugs for
non-licensed purposes to improve academic, work and sporting performance has raised medical, ethical and regulatory issues.