This paper investigates the possibility of using a coarse finite element model with bulk material properties, to model the vertical force–displacement characteristics of a tyre, for the purpose of tyre model parameterization. The paper proves the approach on an off-road tyre of a light truck. The practical application is intended, however, for very large tyres where physical testing is not feasible.
The paper indicates that it is feasible to obtain bulk material properties from tensile tests on specimens cut from different positions on a tyre and to use these test results to parameterize suitable non-linear anisotropic material models. The non-linear elements defined in the neo-Hookean model and the Ogden model, as well as the elements with different linear orthogonal stiffnesses, are combined with each other to simulate the global material properties of the tread and the sidewall of the tyre.
The global behaviour of the finite element model is analysed by comparing experimental results and simulation data on a flat surface as well as various lateral and longitudinal cleats. The results confirm that the finite element model can predict with acceptable accuracy the vertical force–displacement characteristics, as well as the sidewall deformation of the tyre under static loading conditions on a flat surface and also on various different cleats, by using equivalent (global) material properties.
The approach is sufficiently accurate to be used in the parameterization of various tyre models