A growing number of recent studies have highlighted bats as a reservoir for Leptospira bacteria,
pointing out the potential role of bats in the epidemiology of the most widespread zoonotic disease
in the world . Because leptospirosis is a largely neglected disease, a number of unanswered
questions remain about the ecology and evolution of Leptospira, especially those
associated with bats. Here we summarize what has been recently learned about this emerging
but enigmatic host–pathogen association. We show how this system can provide exciting new
opportunities to obtain insights into the evolutionary ecology of bat-borne pathogens and propose
future directions to disentangle the role of bats in human leptospirosis.