The teaching of mathematics in South African schools is placed among the worst in the world, despite
recognizing the development of the country as a knowledge economy that largely depends on mathematics
teaching and competency. The simple logic flowing from this line of thinking is that for learners to perform in
mathematics, they need competent teachers who are responsive to the context of the right to basic education.
Inclusive education defines such context. For effective teaching of mathematics within an inclusive education
setting to be possible in lower grades, this study argues for differentiated teaching practices to support all learners.
For this to be possible, teachers need capacity to carry out curriculum differentiation. This study followed a
qualitative approach in which data was collected through observations, document analysis and interviews. The
results show that Foundation Phase Mathematics teachers face such challenges as the lack of training in curriculum
differentiation and the inability to respond to learner diversity.