Adults of Schistosoma edwardiense Thurston, 1964, were recovered from Hippopotamus amphibius in the Kruger National Park. Small round to oval Schistosoma margrebowiei-like eggs, presumed to be those of S. edwardiense, were found fairly frequently in the faeces of infected hippopotami together with a few Schistosoma haematobium-like eggs the identity of which remains uncertain.
Biomphalaria sp., exposed to the droppings of infected hippopotami, shed cercariae thought to be those of S. edwardiense. No evidence of schistosoma adults was found at necropsy in rodents exposed to these cercariae. The parasite appears to be host specific to the hippopotamus.
Arguments, based on biological and anatomical characteristics are put forward regarding Schistosoma hippopotami Thurston, 1963 as synonymous with Schistosoma mansoni.
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