Dietary quality and patterns and non-communicable disease risk of an Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Naicker, A.
dc.contributor.author Venter, C.S.
dc.contributor.author MacIntyre, Una Elizabeth
dc.contributor.author Ellis, S.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-03-03T06:48:53Z
dc.date.available 2016-03-03T06:48:53Z
dc.date.issued 2015-08-08
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND : Limited data exist on the South African Indian diet despite their high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This study attempted to determine the dietary quality and patterns of an Indian population in KwaZulu-Natal with reference to the high prevalence of non-communicable disease METHODS : Two-hundred-and-fifty apparently healthy Indians, aged 35–55 years participated in a cross-sectional study where diet was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean intakes were compared to the World Health Organization goals. Dietary quality was determined by index construction and dietary patterns by factor analysis. RESULTS : The mean daily percentage of energy (%E) from n-3 fatty acids (0.24 %E), dietary fibre (18.4 g/day) and fruit and vegetable intakes (229.4 g/day) were below the World Health Organization goals. Total fat (36.1 %E), polyunsaturated fatty acids (11.8 %E), n-6 fatty acids (11 %E) and free sugars (12.5 %E) exceeded the goals. The means for the deficient index reflected a moderate diet quality whereas, the excess index reflected good diet quality. The Pearson partial correlation coefficients between the deficient index and risk markers were weak whilst, the excess index was inversely correlated with waist circumference for the whole sample. Two factors were identified, based on the percentage of fat that contributed to each food group: factor 1 (meat and fish versus legume and cereal pattern), which accounted for added fat through food preparation; and Factor 2 (nuts and seeds versus sugars and visible fat pattern), which accounted for obvious fat. The medians for waist circumference, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed significant decreasing trends for factor 1 (p < 0.05). The medians for blood glucose and cholesterol showed significant decreasing trends for factor 2 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION : A shortfall of fruit and vegetable, fibre and n-3 fatty acid intake in the diet is highlighted. When assessing the diet quality and patterns, guidance on the prudent use of added fats may lead to a healthier lifestyle reducing the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2015 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Grants from the South African Medical Research Council, National Research Foundation; Thuthuka and North-West University. en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Naicker, A, Venter, CS, MacIntyre, AE & Ellis, S 2015, 'Dietary quality and patterns and non-communicable disease risk of an Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa', Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 33, pp. 1-9. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1606-0997 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 2072-1315 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/s41043-015-0013-1
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/51676
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Naicker et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. en_ZA
dc.subject Diet quality en_ZA
dc.subject Diet patterns en_ZA
dc.subject Non-communicable diseases en_ZA
dc.subject South African Indian diet en_ZA
dc.subject Indian population en_ZA
dc.title Dietary quality and patterns and non-communicable disease risk of an Indian community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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