The safety and pharmacokinetics of carprofen, flunixin and phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following oral exposure

Show simple item record Fourie, Tamsyn Ann Cromarty, Allan Duncan Duncan, N.M. (Neil) Wolter, Kerri Naidoo, Vinny
dc.contributor.editor Lierz, Michael 2015-12-03T11:24:18Z 2015-12-03T11:24:18Z 2015-10-29
dc.description.abstract The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/ kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2015 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship VN obtained funding from the WWF, South Africa -( (Grant GT 1456). en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Fourie T, Cromarty D, Duncan N, Wolter K, Naidoo V (2015) The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0141419. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141419. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.other 10.1371/journal.pone.0141419
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Fourie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Carprofen (CRP) en_ZA
dc.subject Flunixin (FXN) en_ZA
dc.subject Phenylbutazone (PBZ) en_ZA
dc.subject Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) en_ZA
dc.title The safety and pharmacokinetics of carprofen, flunixin and phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following oral exposure en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record