Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

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dc.contributor.author Schulman, M.L. (Martin)
dc.contributor.author Kirberger, Robert M.
dc.contributor.author Tordiffe, A.S.W. (Adrian Stephen Wolferstan)
dc.contributor.author Marker, Laurie
dc.contributor.author Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne
dc.contributor.author Hartman, Marthinus Jacobus
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-25T06:09:17Z
dc.date.issued 2015-12
dc.description.abstract The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25–14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n ¼ 21) and laparoscopy (n ¼ 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahswere in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A history of prior deslorelin treatment was not associated with either reproductive activity or uterine pathology. en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2016-12-31
dc.description.librarian hb2015 en_ZA
dc.description.librarian ab2016
dc.description.sponsorship AfriCat Foundation and CCF in Namibia. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.theriojournal.com en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Schulman, ML, Kirberger, RM, Tordiffe, ASW, Marker, LL, Schmidt-Küntzel, A & Hartman, MJ 2015, 'Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)', Theriogenology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1611-1619. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0093-691X (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1879-3231 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.08.011
dc.identifier.other 7004586182
dc.identifier.other N-8699-2014
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/50605
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.relation.requires Adobe Acrobat Reader en
dc.rights © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Theriogenology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Theriogenology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1611-1619, 2015. doi :10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.08.011. en_ZA
dc.subject Cheetah en_ZA
dc.subject Cystic endometrial hyperplasia en_ZA
dc.subject Deslorelin en_ZA
dc.subject Ovarian activity en_ZA
dc.subject Paraovarian cyst en_ZA
dc.title Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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