The inclusion of ‘all nations’ as the mission target in the Ultimate Commission of Matthew 28:19
somehow comes as a surprise. The Gentiles seem to have been excluded from Jesus’ and his
disciples’ mission in two passages (10:5–6; 15:24). In an attempt to establish the target group of the
great commandment, this article investigates the meaning of the phrase pavnta ta; e[qnh as used in
28:19 and subsequently the literary contexts of the commandment.