Paper presented to the 3rd Southern African Solar Energy Conference, South Africa, 11-13 May, 2015.
At the community level, it is difficult to rely on a single centralized energy technology when considering renewable energy and the use of a mix of multiple distributed energy systems (DES) seems advantageous. DES, e.g. photovoltaic panels (PV), are typically integrated at building level and account for a small fraction of required energy. Since energy supply from renewables is highly fluctuating over time and dependent on climatic and local conditions, a reliable integration is a challenging task. In this paper, we use a recently developed concept, that allows to sufficiently improve the energy efficiency of the building stock, to manage energy supply from renewables and to optimize the future energy system using the energy hub approach, while effectively integrating DES. Using the same village characteristics, we found that, due to mismatch of available solar potential and the electricity demand, 18% of available solar potential cannot be utilized in Zernez, while in Johannesburg, this mismatch amounts to 22%.