Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species
that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) is regionally endangered in
southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area
previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand
their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9) were captured and fitted with global
positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs),
and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs) were calculated for the breeding and nonbreeding
seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and
vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger
(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2) than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ±
2155 km2). Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel
density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures
used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the
non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than
expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes
were used less, except for subsistence farmland.
CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS : These results highlight the importance of subsistence farmland
to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to
vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.
The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased
to 50 km.