Stable operation of submerged-arc furnaces producing high-carbon ferromanganese (HCFeMn) and silicomanganese
(SiMn) requires tapping of consistent amounts of liquid slag and metal. Minimal effort to initiate and sustain tapping at
reasonable rates is desired, accommodating fluctuations in especially slag chemical composition and temperature. An
analytical model is presented that estimates the tapping rate of the liquid slag-metal mixture as a function of taphole
dimensions, coke bed particulate properties, and slag and metal physicochemical properties with dependencies on
chemical composition and temperature. This model may be used to evaluate the sensitivity to fluctuations in these
parameters, and to determine the influence of converting between HCFeMn and SiMn production.
The model was applied to typical HCFeMn and SiMn process conditions, using modelled slag viscosities and densities.
Tapping flow rates estimated were comparable to operational data and found to be dependent mostly on slag viscosity.
Slag viscosities were generally lower for typical SiMn slags due to the higher temperature used for calculating viscosity. It
was predicted that flow through the taphole would mostly develop into laminar flow, with the pressure drop predominantly
over the coke bed. Flow rates were found to be more dependent on the taphole diameter than on the taphole length.