Avermectins and milbemycins are commonly used in agro-ecosystems for the control of
parasites in domestic livestock. As integral members of agro-ecosystems with importance in
maintaining pasture health through dung burial behaviour, dung beetles are an excellent nontarget
bio-indicator taxon for examining potential detrimental effects of pesticide application.
The current review focuses on the relative toxicity of four different anthelmintics (ivermectin,
eprinomectin, doramectin and moxidectin) in dung residues using dung beetles as a bioindicator
species. One of the implications of this review is that there could be an effect that
extends to the entire natural assemblage of insects inhabiting and feeding on the dung of cattle
treated with avermectin or milbemycin products. Over time, reduced reproductive rate would
result in decreased dung beetle populations and ultimately, a decrease in the rate of dung
degradation and dung burial.