There is obviously no question that the notion of "leadership" is central in Plato's Republic, nor is there apparently any question that it is crucial, since it is foundational for Plato's society. Writing his Republic, Plato's aim as he says, was to write a "theoretical constitution"(or to critically present the theoretical framework and principles for a constitution - logô politeian) in order to "establish a good society" (aristên polin oikizein). A good society, according to Plato's theory, is the one which is founded on a good principle and grounded on a good leadership, that is to say the principle of justice and the leadership of the philosopher. However, along with his notions of "society" and "justice", Plato's notion of "leadership" has been questioned and challenged by many (often quite vehemently, especially in the 20th C. and particularly after the Second World War) and seen as a totalitarian State under a dictatorial justice of an authoritarian ruler. Therefore, the trilogy of Society, Justice and Leadership, as the core of the Platonic Republic, demands and invites again a critical re-examination: What does Plato mean by "society", "justice" and "leadership" and what does he mean by "good" (aristê) as applied to them? Does Plato consider the holistic State as the best kind of Society and the hierarchical Jurisprudence as the perfect Principle? Does he consider the autocratic Potentate as the required Philosopher-king? What does he mean by the philosophical leader under the principle of justice which, in his view, is the bedrock for his constitutionally founded society? The present article proposes to re-examine this question relating to Plato's enigmatic and controversial notion of "leadership".