Revised timeline and distribution of the earliest diverged human maternal lineages in Southern Africa

Show simple item record Chan, Eva K.F. Hardie, Rae-Anne Petersen, Desiree C. Beeson, Karen Bornman, Maria S. (Riana) Smith, Andrew B. Hayes, Vanessa M. 2015-07-09T06:08:53Z 2015-07-09T06:08:53Z 2015-03-25
dc.description.abstract The oldest extant human maternal lineages include mitochondrial haplogroups L0d and L0k found in the southern African click-speaking forager peoples broadly classified as Khoesan. Profiling these early mitochondrial lineages allows for better understanding of modern human evolution. In this study, we profile 77 new early-diverged complete mitochondrial genomes and sub-classify another 105 L0d/L0k individuals from southern Africa. We use this data to refine basal phylogenetic divergence, coalescence times and Khoesan prehistory. Our results confirm L0d as the earliest diverged lineage (~172 kya, 95%CI: 149–199 kya), followed by L0k (~159 kya, 95%CI: 136–183 kya) and a new lineage we name L0g (~94 kya, 95%CI: 72–116 kya). We identify two new L0d1 subclades we name L0d1d and L0d1c4/L0d1e, and estimate L0d2 and L0d1 divergence at ~93 kya (95%CI:76–112 kya). We concur the earliest emerging L0d1’2 sublineage L0d1b (~49 kya, 95%CI:37–58 kya) is widely distributed across southern Africa. Concomitantly, we find the most recent sublineage L0d2a (~17 kya, 95%CI:10–27 kya) to be equally common. While we agree that lineages L0d1c and L0k1a are restricted to contemporary inland Khoesan populations, our observed predominance of L0d2a and L0d1a in non-Khoesan populations suggests a once independent coastal Khoesan prehistory. The distribution of early-diverged human maternal lineages within contemporary southern Africans suggests a rich history of human existence prior to any archaeological evidence of migration into the region. For the first time, we provide a genetic-based evidence for significant modern human evolution in southern Africa at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum at between ~21–17 kya, coinciding with the emergence of major lineages L0d1a, L0d2b, L0d2d and L0d2a. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2015 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship VMH is supported via the Petre Foundation, Australia, and previously via the J. Craig Venter Family Fund, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Chan EKF, Hardie R-A, Petersen DC, Beeson K, Bornman RMS, Smith AB & Hayes, VM (2015) Revised Timeline and Distribution of the Earliest Diverged Human Maternal Lineages in Southern Africa. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0121223. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121223 en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.other 10.1371/journal.pone.0121223
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Chan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_ZA
dc.subject Khoesan en_ZA
dc.subject Mitochondrial lineages en_ZA
dc.subject Human evolution en_ZA
dc.subject Southern Africa en_ZA
dc.subject Human maternal lineages en_ZA
dc.title Revised timeline and distribution of the earliest diverged human maternal lineages in Southern Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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