The influence of three different intercalation techniques on the microstructure of exfoliated graphite

Show simple item record Van Heerden, Xandra Badenhorst, Heinrich 2015-06-05T12:09:52Z 2015-06-05T12:09:52Z 2015-07
dc.description.abstract The characteristics of exfoliated graphite derived from three intercalation methods: gas phase intercalation of iron (III) chloride, modified Hummers method and an electrochemical technique, were compared. Despite the absence of strong oxidisers the electrochemical method produced a material which is very similar to that of the modified Hummers method in virtually every respect. These both produced a graphite oxide based material whilst the gas phase method resulted in a stage 1 intercalation compound. The different materials demonstrated very distinctive exfoliation behaviour. The gas phase material exhibits 3% mass loss during expansion but has a large amount of residual intercalant. The graphite oxide based methods result in mass loss of up to 25% in the expansion zone. For all three samples the residual impurities lead to a reduction in oxidative resistance. Once removed all samples exhibit nearly identical oxidation behaviour. All three methods delivered graphite nanoplatelets with a very high aspect ratio through considerable expansion. Surprisingly the gas phase method caused persistent residual damage. All three methods yielded a product with varying levels of basal and edge damage, but the purified Hummers material exhibited marginally more ‘ideal’ characteristics. The simplest but still effective technique was found to be the electrochemical approach. en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2016-07-31 en_ZA
dc.description.librarian hb2015 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the National Research Foundation (NRF). en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Van Heerden, X & Badenhorst, H 2015, 'The influence of three different intercalation techniques on the microstructure of exfoliated graphite', Carbon, vol. 88, pp. 173-184. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0008-6223 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-3891 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.03.006
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Carbon. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Carbon, vol. 88, pp. 173-184, 2015. doi : 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.03.006 en_ZA
dc.subject Microstructure en_ZA
dc.subject Exfoliated graphite en_ZA
dc.subject Gas phase intercalation of iron (III) chloride en_ZA
dc.subject Modified Hummers method en_ZA
dc.subject Electrochemical technique en_ZA
dc.title The influence of three different intercalation techniques on the microstructure of exfoliated graphite en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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