Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities

Show simple item record Isa, Adamu Imam Awouafack, Maurice D. Dzoyem, Jean Paul Aliyu, Mohammed Magaji, Rabiu AbduSsalam Ayo, Joseph Olusegun Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas 2015-06-03T10:11:34Z 2015-06-03T10:11:34Z 2014-11-27
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND : Strychnos spinosa Lam. is a deciduous tree used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study is designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts and fractions from leaves of S. spinosa. METHODS : Extracts were obtained by maceration with acetone, methanol and dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) while fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation of the acetone extract. A broth serial microdilution method with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical-scavenging assays, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. RESULTS : Four extracts and five fractions had good to weak antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 0.04 to >1.25 mg/ml against both fungi and bacteria. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus. The n-butanol fraction had an MIC of 0.04 mg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. The hexane and chloroform fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant activities were much lower than that of the positive controls. Except for the alkaloid extract, all the extracts and fractions had free-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ranging from 33.66 to 314.30 μg/ml). The cytotoxicity on Vero cells was reasonable to low with LC50 values ranging between 30.56 and 689.39 μg/ml. CONCLUSION : The acetone extract and the chloroform fraction had the highest antibacterial activity. By solvent-solvent fractionation it was possible to increase the activity against A. fumigatus and to decrease the cytotoxicity leading to a potentially useful product to protect animals against aspergillosis. Our results therefore support the use of S. spinosa leaves in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2015 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship A.I.I is grateful to the Nigerian Tertiary Education Training Fund (TETFund) through Ahmadu Bello University Academic Unit for supporting the work in this paper. M.D.A and J.P.D received Postdoctoral Fellowships from the University of Pretoria to work in the Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Isa, AI, Awouafack, MD, Dzoyem, JP, Aliyu, M, Magaji, RA, Ayo, JO & Eloff, JN 2014, 'Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, art. no. 456, pp. 1-8. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1472-6882
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/1472-6882-14-456
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_ZA
dc.rights © 2014 Isa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License en_ZA
dc.subject Extracts en_ZA
dc.subject Different polarity fractions en_ZA
dc.subject Antimicrobial en_ZA
dc.subject Antioxidants en_ZA
dc.subject Cytotoxicity en_ZA
dc.subject Selectivity index en_ZA
dc.subject Potentizing extracts en_ZA
dc.title Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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