Paper presented to the 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Florida, 14-16 July 2014.
The conversion efficiency of biomass in developing countries in many cases is low resulting in unsustainable use of biomass resources and negative environmental impacts. In the earthen charcoal-making kiln widely used in the developing countries, the conversion efficiency is on average as low as 6 - 10 percent on dry basis. The low conversion efficiency is a source of greenhouse gas causing deforestation around most African cities. However, the earthen charcoal-making kiln has been reported to have potential for improvement of the kiln conversion efficiency. This paper reports on the parametric studies and analysis of the conversion efficiency of the earthen charcoal-making kiln by using a numerical method. To achieve this, a 3-Dimensional transient numerical model of the earthen charcoal-making kiln was used in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software code of PHOENICS to simulate the major factors influencing carbonisation processes in the kiln for their effect on the kiln conversion efficiency.