Notwithstanding morphological differences, the ultrastructure of Cowdria ruminantium cultured in vitro concurred to a large extent with that in previous in vivo studies. Two distinct forms of the organism, elementary and reticulate bodies, and a 3rd group of intermediate organisms were identified. Organisms within a particular vacuole were generally a specific form, but in cells containing many colonies different forms were present in the same colony. Most organisms were enveloped by 2 membranes and a few were surrounded by a 'capsule'. C. ruminantium multiplies mainly by binary fission, but it appears that multiplication can also take place by means of budding. The taxonomy of C. ruminantium is briefly discussed.
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