The efficacy of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal inoculation of heartwater infective blood or nymph suspensions was tested in 5 experiments involving a total of 199 sheep. The success rate of subcutaneous injections varied greatly (0-100 %) in the different groups. However, it was found that certain additives to the inoculum, such as dimethyl sulphoxide or uninfective brain tissue, increased the efficacy of the subcutaneous route. Indications are that the site of inoculation and especially the dose volume are important factors in the success rate of such inoculations. Intramuscular injection with infective nymph suspensions containing bradikynin or hyaluronidase produced heartwater reactions in 11 out of 14 sheep. In 2 experiments, involving 25 cattle, it was found that, although very few animals showed definite reactions after the subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of nymph suspension and additives, the majority were afterwards immune to challenge. This phenomenon, which was also present in some sheep, needs further investigation.
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