Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculollsis in South Africa, 2010-2011

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dc.contributor.author Walaza, Sibongile
dc.contributor.author Tempia, Stefano
dc.contributor.author Dawood, Halima
dc.contributor.author Variava, Ebrahim
dc.contributor.author Moyes, Jocelyn
dc.contributor.author Cohen, Adam L.
dc.contributor.author Wolter, Nicole
dc.contributor.author Groome, Michelle
dc.contributor.author Von Mollendorf, Claire
dc.contributor.author Kahn, Kathleen
dc.contributor.author Pretorius, Marthi A.
dc.contributor.author Venter, Marietjie
dc.contributor.author Madhi, Shabir A.
dc.contributor.author Cohen, Cheryl
dc.date.accessioned 2015-03-16T06:27:21Z
dc.date.available 2015-03-16T06:27:21Z
dc.date.issued 2015-01
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND : Data on the association between influenza and tuberculosis are limited. We describe the characteristics of patients with laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis, laboratory-confirmed influenza and tuberculosis-influenza co-infection. METHODS : Patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (acute and chronic) were enrolled prospectively in four provinces in South Africa. Naso/oropharyngeal specimens were tested for influenza virus by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tuberculosis testing was conducted as part of clinical management. RESULTS : From June 2010 through December 2011, 8032 patients were enrolled and influenza testing was conducted on 7863 (98%). Influenza virus was detected in 765 (10%) patients. Among 2959 patients with tuberculosis and influenza results, 2227 (75%) were negative for both pathogens, 423 (14%) were positive for tuberculosis alone, 275 (9%) were positive for influenza alone and 34 (1%) had influenza and tuberculosis co-infection. On multivariable analysis amongst individuals with symptoms for ≥7 days, tuberculosis influenza co-infection was associated with increased risk of death, (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) (6.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-23.4), as compared to tuberculosis only infection. This association was not observed in individuals with symptoms for <7 days (aRRR.0.8, 95% CI 0.1-7.0). CONCLUSION : Tuberculosis and influenza co-infection compared to tuberculosis single infection was associated with increased risk of death in individuals with symptoms ≥7 days. The potential public health impact of influenza vaccination among persons with laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis should be explored. en_ZA
dc.description.librarian hb2015 en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/ en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Walaza, S, Tempia, S, Dawood, H, Variava, E, Moyes, J, Cohen, AL, Wolter, N, Groome, M, Von Mollendorf, C, Kahn, K, Pretorius, M, Venter, M, Madhi, SA & Cohen, C 2015, 'Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculollsis in South Africa, 2010-2011', BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, Art. #26, pp. 1-13. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2334
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/s12879-015-0746-x
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/44003
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_ZA
dc.rights © 2015 Walaza et al ; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.orglicenses/by/4.0). en_ZA
dc.subject Influenza en_ZA
dc.subject Tuberculosis en_ZA
dc.subject Co-infection en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.title Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculollsis in South Africa, 2010-2011 en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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