This article develops guidelines for improving cooperation between public libraries and school libraries in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A literature review contextualizes recent developments in the library and information services (LIS) sector, as well as cooperation initiatives abroad and in some of the country’s provinces. Data was collected through questionnaires distributed to public and school librarians, interviews with senior managers in the public library and school library sub-sectors of the Eastern Cape Province, and from official records and policy documents. Analysis and interpretation of this data provided a platform for developing guidelines for cooperation, and indicating what conditions as well as what roles and responsibilities at national, provincial, and local levels are necessary for their successful implementation. The guidelines, while specifically informed by data relevant to the Eastern Cape Province, follow the broader pattern set out in the recent Strategic Guidelines for Collaboration between Community Libraries and Schools 2013-2015 document crafted by the National Department of Basic Education (DBE) and the National Department of Arts and Culture (DAC).