Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential
for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor
analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS) that was used to survey
291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated
an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges.
Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of
control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to