Criteria that are required to confirm heartwater in ruminants and mice are discussed. In ruminants it entails the microscopical and macroscopical lesions as well as the identification of Cowdria ruminantium in brain smears or histological sections. Macroscopical lesions in the majority of animals that die of the disease include effusion of body cavities, hydropericardium, oedema of the lungs, brain, mediastinum, and its associated lymph nodes, and splenomegaly. The effect of specific chemotherapy on the morphology of heartwater organisms in vivo is outlined. A severe nephrosis in heartwater-infected Angora goats, treated after the first day of the febrile reaction, is described.
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