Novel norovirus recombinants detected in South Africa

Show simple item record Mans, Janet Murray, Tanya Y. Taylor, Maureen B. 2014-11-14T11:03:33Z 2014-11-14T11:03:33Z 2014-09-17
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Recombination frequently occurs within and between NoV genotypes and recombinants have been implicated in sporadic cases, outbreaks and pandemics of NoV. There is a lack of data on NoV recombinants in Africa and therefore their presence and diversity was investigated in South Africa (SA). RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2013, eleven types of NoV recombinants were identified in SA. Amplification of the polymerase/capsid region spanning the ORF1/2 junction and phylogenetic analysis confirmed each of the recombinant types. SimPlot and maximum x2 analysis indicated that all recombinants had a breakpoint in the region of the ORF1/2 junction (P < 0.05). The majority (9/11) were intergenotype recombinants, but two intragenotype GII.4 recombinants were characterised. Three combinations represent novel recombinants namely GII. P not assigned (NA)/GII.3, GII.P4 New Orleans 2009/GII.4 NA and GII.P16/GII.17. Several widely reported recombinants were identified and included GII.P21/GII.2, GII.P21/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, and GII.Pg/GII.12. Other recombinants that were identified were GII.Pg/GII.1, GII.Pe/GII.4 Osaka 2007, GII.P4 New Orleans 2009/GII.4 Sydney 2012, GII.P7/GII.6. To date these recombinant types all have a reportedly restricted geographic distribution. This is the first report of the GII.P4 New Orleans 2009/GII.4 Sydney 2012 recombinant in Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past four years, remarkably diverse NoV recombinants have been circulating in SA. Pandemic strains such as the GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 recombinant co-circulated with novel and emerging recombinant strains. Combined polymerase- and capsid-based NoV genotyping is essential to determine the true diversity and global prevalence of these viruses. en_US
dc.description.librarian am2014 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The South African Poliomyelitis Research Foundation en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Mans, J, Murray, TY & Taylor, MB 2014, 'Novel norovirus recombinants detected in South Africa', Virology Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, art. 168, pp. 1-9. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1742-422X
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/1743-422X-11-168
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_US
dc.rights © 2014 Mans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_US
dc.subject Intergenotype en_US
dc.subject Intragenotype en_US
dc.subject Norovirus recombinants en_US
dc.subject Novel en_US
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_US
dc.title Novel norovirus recombinants detected in South Africa en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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