Africa is home to just over a quarter of all undernourished children. While food supply has largely kept pace with population growth in most African countries since the 1990s, high levels of under-nutrition pose threats to productivity and efficiency of the agriculture and food system. Ensuring food security for all in Africa in the future will require more than simply increasing aggregate food supplies. Future agriculture and food security strategies, policies and investment in Africa will need to consider the unique dynamics of Africa's population growth and balance the need for a very significant and rapid increase in food demand with careful consideration of dietary requirements to ensure healthy and productive lives. There is broad agreement that African agriculture has enormous potential for growth thanks to its abundant natural resources, namely land and water. But, will the renewed attention and investment in African generate the exponential growth necessary to feed the continent's growing population in a manner that ensure sound nutrition?