1987 Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 54, 1987

1987 Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 54, 1987


Contentes Pages: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol ??, 19??


Volume 54: Number 1

The development of an ELISA-assay for semi-quantitative detection of dihydrogriesenin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Geigeria Verschoor, JA, Bornman, L & Vermeulen, NMJ 1

Tick transmission of Anaplasma centrale Potgieter, FT & Van Rensburg, L 5

Production of a macrophage chemotactic factor by cultured jaagsiekte tumour cells Verwoerd, DW, Myer, MS & Garnett, HM 9

Control of induced infestations of adult Amblyomma hebraeum with sustained release ivermectin Soll, MD, Carmichael, IH & Gross, SJ 17

Resistance to various antibiotics of Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from registrable farm feeds Durand, AM, Barnard, ML, Swanepoel, ML & Engelbrecht, MM 21

Parasites in sheep grazing on Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in the winter rainfall region Reinecke, RK, Kirkpatrick, R, Swart, L, Kriel, AMD & Frank, F 27

Purification of the alpha toxin of Clostridium perfringens type A by ultrafiltration and gel chromatography Odendaal, MW 39

Further studies on the clinical pathology of sweating sickness in cattle Van Amstel, SR, Oberem, PT, Matthee, O & Reyers, F 45

Some wild hosts of the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus Neumann, 1904 (Acari : Ixodidae) Horak, IG, Moolman, LC & Fourie, LJ 49

Ovine hepatogenous photosensitivity caused by the plant Nidorella foetida (Thunb.) DC. (Asteraceae) Schneider, DJ, Green, JR & Collett, MG 53

Leptospirosis as a cause of "white spot" kidneys in South African pig abattoirs Hunter, P, Van der Vyver, FH, Henton, MM, Herr, S, De Lange, JF & Selmer-Olsen, A 59

The genome of Anaplasma : DNA base composition and DNA/DNA hybridization Ambrosio, RE & Potgieter, FT 63

A single dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of antibodies to African horsesickness virus Williams, R 67

Studies on the parasites of zebras. V. Nematodes of the Burchell's and Hartmann's mountain zebras from the Etosha National Park, South West Africa/Namibia Krecek, RC, Reinecke, RK & Malan, FS 71

The resistance spectrum shown by a fenvalerate-resistant strain of blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus) to a range of ixodicides Coetzee, BB, Stanford, GD & Davis, DAT 79

Resistance by the blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus) to the synthetic pyrethroid, fenvalerate Coetzee, BB, Stanford, GD & Davis, DAT 83

Ultrastructural features of Cowdria ruminantium in midgut epithelial cells and salivary glands of nymphal Amblyomma hebraeum Kocan, KM, Bezuidenhout, JD & Hart, A 87

Enzyme electrophoresis of South African Schistosoma mattheei and S. haematobium Kruger, FJ 93

Research communication:

A rapid microtitration serum agglutination test for the detection of contagious equine metritis antibodies Gummow, B, Herr, S & Brett, OL 97

Volume 54: Number 2

A collapsible, semi-automatic, tent-type, emergence trap, suitable for sampling Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) from a wide range of habitats Pajor, ITP 99

Immunization of sheep against the larval stage of Taenia multiceps Verster, A & Tustin, RC 103

The relationship between the skin and some bacterial species occurring on it in the Merino Jansen, BC & Hayes, M 107

Broiler pulmonary hypertension syndrome. I. Increased right ventricular mass in broilers experimentally infected with Aegyptianella pullorum Huchzermeyer, FW, Cilliers, JA, Diaz Lavigne, CD & Bartkowiak, RA 113

Musca nevilli sp. nov. (Diptera : Muscidae), a dung-breeding fly from South Africa Kleynhans, KPN 115

The isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and related serological findings associated with a mixed farming unit in the Transvaal Gummow, B, De Lange, JF, Turner, GV & Redman, AR 119

Demonstration of growth-inhibitory as well as growth-stimulatory factors in medium conditioned by lung lavage cells stimulated with a chemotactic factor secreted by jaagsiekte tumour cells Verwoerd, DW, Myer, MS & Garnett, HM 123

Parasites of South African Wildlife. I. Helminths of bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus, and grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, from the Weza State Forest, Natal Horak, IG, Boomker, J & Keep, ME 131

Descriptions of incisors of known-age Cape mountain zebras, Equus zebra zebra, from the Mountain Zebra National Park Penzhorn, BL 135

Two field strains of Haemonchus contortus resistant to refoxanide Van Wyk, JA, Malan, FS, Gerber, HM & Alves, RMR 143

African swine fever. II. Functional disturbances of thrombocytes in pigs infected with virulent haemadsorbing and non-haemadsorbing virus isolates Neser, JA & Kotze, C 147

Research communications:

Antibody response in cattle to oil emulsion rabies and ephemeral fever vaccines Cameron, CM, Barnard, BJH, Erasmus, E & Botha, WJS 157

Some features of coagulase positive staphylococci from bovine milk. II. Comparison of conventional techniques and the API Staph system Erasmus, JA, Brand, PAJ & Galbraith, MM 159

Volume 54: Number 3

Heartwater: Past, Present and Future

Proceedings of a workshop held at Berg en Dal, Kruger National Park, on 8-16 September 1986


Welcoming address to the workshop on heartwater: past, present and future Van der Merwe, FJ 163

The historical background and global importance of heartwater Provost, A & Bezuidenhout, JD 165

The Organism:

Heartwater: The morphology of Cowdria ruminantium and its staining characteristic in the vertebrate host and in vitro Prozesky, L 173

Morphology and development of Cowdria ruminantium in Amblyomma ticks Kocan, KM & Bezuidenhout, JD 177

Distinctive staining of colonies of Cowdria ruminantium midguts of Amblyomma hebraeum Yunker, CE, Kocan, KM, Norval, RAI & Burridge, MJ 183

Cowdria ruminantium: stability and preservation of the organism Logan, LL 187

Heartwater: The development and life cycle of Cowdria ruminantium in the vertebrate host, ticks and cultured endothelial cells Prozesky, L & Du Plessis, JL 193

The development of Cowdria ruminantium in neutrophils Logan, LL, Whyard, TC, Quintero, JC & Mebus, CA 197

The present state of Cowdria ruminantium cultivation in cell lines Bezuidenhout, JD 205

Metabolism and genetics of chlamydias and rickettsias Williams, JC & Vodkin, MH 211

Purification of Cowdria ruminantium by density gradient centrifugation Neitz, AWH, Vermeulen, NMJ & Viljoen, GJ 223

Purification of Cowdria ruminantium lectin cellular affinity chromatography Vermeulen, NMJ, Neitz, AWH & Viljoen, GJ 233

Purification of Cowdria ruminantium by immunosorbent affinity chromatography Neitz, AWH & Vermeulen, NMJ 247

The construction of genomic libraries of Cowdria ruminantium in an expression vector, lambda gt11 Ambrosio, RE, Du Plessis, JL & Bezuidenhout, JD 255

The taxonomic status of the causative agent of heartwater Scott, GR 257

The Host:

Heartwater. An overview of the clinical signs, susceptibility and differential diagnosis of the disease in domestic ruminants Van de Pypekamp, HE & Prozesky, L 263

Cowdria ruminantium infection in the mouse : a review MacKenzie, PKI & McHardy, N 267

Heartwater in hosts other than domestic ruminants Oberem, PT & Bezuidenhout, JD 271

Heartwater. The artificial transmission of Cowdria ruminantium in domestic ruminants and mice Prozesky, L 277

The pathology of heartwater. III. A review Prozesky, L 281

The clinical pathology and pathophysiology of heartwater: a review Van Amstel, SR, Reyers, F, Oberem, PT, Killeen, VM & Matthee, O 287

Diagnosis of heartwater in the live animal : experiences with goats in Guadeloupe Camus, E & Barre, N 291

The use of electro-encephalography and brain biopsy in the clinical diagnosis of heartwater Van Amstel, SR 295

Diagnosis of heartwater at post-mortem in ruminants and the confirmation of Cowdria ruminantium in mice Prozesky, L 301

Theoretical aspects of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and its use in the detection of Cowdria ruminantium antigen and antibody in reacting animals Viljoen, GJ & Vermeulen, NMJ 305

The pathogenesis of heartwater Du Plessis, JL, Malan, L & Kowalski, ZE 313

The application of the indirect fluorescent antibody test in research on heartwater Du Plessis & JL, Malan, L 319

Heartwater serology : some problems with the interpretation of results Du Plessis, JL, Camus, E, Oberem, PT & Malan, L 327

The serological relationship between Cowdria ruminantium and certain members of the genus Ehrlichia Holland, CJ, Logan, LL, Mebus, CA & Ristic, M 331

The non-specific resistance of cattle to heartwater Du Plessis, JL & Malan, L 333

Genetic resistance of Guadeloupe native goats to heartwater Matheron, G, Barre, N, Camus, E & Gogue, J 337

Specific immunity in farm animals to heartwater Stewart, CG 341

Specific immunity in mice to heartwater Stewart, CG 343

Cross-immunity between isolates of Cowdria ruminantium Logan, LL, Birnie, EF & Mebus, CA 345

The Vectors:

Natural transmission of heartwater Bezuidenhout, JD 349

The tick vectors of Cowdria ruminantium (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae, genus Amblyomma) and their distribution Walker, JB & Olwage, A 353

The ecology of the African vectors of heartwater, with particular reference to Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum Petney, TN, Horak, IG & Rechav, Y 381

Some avian and mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari: Ixodidae) Horak, IG, MacIvor, KM de F, Petney, TN & De Vos, V 397

Danger of introducing heartwater onto the American mainland: potential role of indigenous and exotic Amblyomma ticks Barre, N, Uilenberg, G, Morel, PC & Camus, E 405

Epidemiology of heartwater in Guadeloupe and in the Caribbean Camus, E & Barre, N 419

Problems with the interpretation of epidemiological data in heartwater: a study on 23 farms Malan, L & Du Plessis, JL 427

The reservoir status of goats recovered from heartwater Barre, N & Camus, E 435

Tick pheromones Gothe, R 439

Biochemical studies on the salivary glands and haemolymph of Amblyomma hebraeum Neitz, AWH & Vermeulen, NMJ 443

Biochemical studies on the eggs of Amblyomma hebraeum Vermeulen, NMJ & Neitz, AWH 451

Rearing and infection techniques for Amblyomma species to be used in heartwater transmission experiments Heyne, H, Elliott, EGR & Bezuidenhout, JD 461


The treatment of heartwater Van Amstel, SR & Oberem, PT 475

Identification of drugs effective against Cowdria ruminantium using a mouse screening system McHardy, N & MacKenzie, PI 481

The production of heartwater vaccine Oberem, PT & Bezuidenhout, JD 485

The infection and treatment method of vaccination against heartwater Van der Merwe, L 489

The block method of vaccination against heartwater Du Plessis, JL & Malan, L 493

The efficacy of alternative routes for the infection or vaccination of animals with Cowdria ruminantium Bezuidenhout, JD, Oliver, JA, Gruss, B & Badenhorst, JV 497

A preliminary investigation into the efficacy of intraperitoneal vaccination of sheep and goat kids against heartwater Hurter, LR 507

Development of a prophylactic regime using Terramycin/LA to assist in the introduction of susceptible cattle into heartwater endemic areas of Africa Purnell, RE 509

Problems encountered in the control of heartwater in Angora goats Gruss, B 513

Chemical control of the heartwater vectors Schroder, J 517

The use of flumethrin 1% pour-on for the control of Amblyomma spp. in various southern African countries Hamel, HD 521

The control of heartwater by means of tick control Bezuidenhout, JD & Bigalke, RD 525

The effect of dipping on parasitic and free-living populations of Amblyomma hebraeum on a farm and on an adjacent nature reserve Petney, TN & Horak, IG 529

The natural control of heartwater vectors Spickett, AM 535


Future prospects and goal setting regarding research on heartwater Bigalke, RD 543

Volume 54: Number 4

The control of Parafilaria bovicola transmission in South Africa Nevill, EM, Wilkins, CA & Zakrisson, G 547

Antibiotic sensitivity of Pasteurella haemolytica isolated by means of a fibreoptic endoscope from cases of pneumonic pastereullosis in cattle Van Amstel, SR, Henton, M, Witcomb, MA, Fabian, B & Vervoort, P 551

A comparative study of the growth of Campylobacter fetus strains in liquid media Van der Walt, ML 553

The persistence of colostral Anaplasma antibodies and incidence of in utero transmission of Anaplasma infections in calves under laboratory conditions Potgieter, FT & Van Rensburg, L 557

An investigation into the clinical pathological changes and serological response in horses experimentally infected with Babesia equi and Babesia caballi De Waal, DT, Van Heerden, J & Potgieter, FT 561

The incidence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in cattle in the Transvaal Gummow, B, Poerstamper, N & Herr, S 569

Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores Horak, IG, Guillarmod, AJ, Moolman, LC & De Vos, V 573

Frequency and occurrence of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the gut of the pig, as indicated by its presence in the faeces Von Aulock, MHM & Holzapfel, WH 581

Afrotropical Culicoides: a redescription of C. (Avaritia) kanagai Khamala & Kettle, 1971, reared from elephant dung in the Kruger National Park, South Africa Meiswinkel, R 585

Seasonal abundance of carrion-frequenting blow-flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Kruger National Park Braack, LEO & De Vos, V 591

Broiler pulmonary hypertension syndrome. II. The direct measurement of right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressures in the closed chest domestic fowl Guthrie, AJ, Cilliers, JA, Huchzermeyer, FW & Killeen, VM 599

The occurrence of Schistosoma mattheei in the south-western Transvaal Joubert, PH, Hamilton-Attwell, VL & Kruger, FJ 603

The colonization and life-cycles of Musca lusoria, Musca xanthomelas and Musca nevilli, vectors of Parafilaria bovicola in South Africa Nevill, EM & Sutherland, B 607

The demonstration of the K-antigen of Campylobacter fetus venerealis using a microtitre agglutination test Van der Walt, ML 613

The use of electronarcosis as anaesthetic in the cichlid, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). I. General experimental procedures and the role of fish length on the narcotizing effects of electric currents Barham, WT, Schoonbee, HJ & Visser, JGJ 617

DNA probes for the detection of Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma marginale Visser, ES & Ambrosio, RE 623

The identification of factors capable of reversing the core-mediated inhibition of the bluetongue virus transcriptase Van Dijk, AA & Huismans, H 629

Pathological findings in a natural outbreak of aflatoxicosis in dogs Bastianello, SS, Nesbit, JW, Williams, MC & Lange, AL 635

Cardiac glycoside poisoning in sheep caused by Urginea physodes (Jacq.) Bak. and the isolated physodine A Nel, PW, Schultz, RA, Jordaan, P, Anderson, LAP, Kellerman, TS & Reid, C 641

Experimental evidence that the active principle of the poisonous plant Thesium lineatum L.f. (Santalaceae) is a bufadienolide Anderson, LAP, Joubert, JPJ, Schultz, RA, Kellerman, TS & Pienaar, BJ 645

Research communications:

The use of meso-erythritol sensitivity discs in the typing of Brucella strains Pieterson, PM, Te Brugge, LA, Pienaar, BJ 651

The isolation of a paramyxovirus from pigeons in South Africa Pienaar, ACE & Cilliers, JA 653

The transstadial transmission of Babesia caballi by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi De Waal, DT & Potgieter, FT 655

Author index 657

Subject index 667

Recent Submissions

  • Van de Pypekamp, H.E.; Prozesky, L.; Bigalke, R.D. (Pretoria : Government Printer, 1987)
    Heartwater is a frequently fatal tick-borne disease of ruminants caused by Cowdria ruminantium. In domestic ruminants the incubation period varies considerably and depends on the route of infection, virulence of the ...
  • Scott, G.R.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    A fresh pragmatic classification of the rickettsias has been derived by applying the simplest techniques of numerical taxonomy. One order, the Rickettsiales, containing 3 families, the Rickettsiaceae, Phagosomaphilaceae, and ...
  • Ambrosio, R.E.; Du Plessis, J.L.; Bezuidenhout, J.D.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Genomic libraries of the Welgevonden and Kwanyanga isolates of Cowdria ruminantium have been constructed in an expression vector. These libraries contain approximately 4 x 10⁵ and 3 x 10⁵ recombinants respectively.
  • Neitz, A.W.H.; Vermeulen, N.M.J.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Immunoselective methods with special reference to immunoadsorbent affinity chromatography as a means for the isolation of Cowdria ruminantium are reviewed. Attention is given to the source of the organism, immunization, ...
  • Vermeulen, N.M.J.; Neitz, A.W.H.; Viljoen, G.J.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    This review covers the isolation of Cowdria ruminantium by lectin cellular affinity chromatography from different Amblyomma hebraeum sources. Cellular affinity chromatography has been reviewed with special attention being ...
  • Neitz, A.W.H.; Vermeulen, N.M.J.; Viljoen, G.J.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The isolation of Cowdria ruminantium by differential and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation is reviewed with special reference to the suitability of Percoll as density gradient medium. Infected sheep brain, Amblyomma ...
  • Williams, J.C.; Vodkin, M.H.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Chlamydial and rickettsial diseases pose a hazard to man and to domesticated and wild animals. The virulence mechanisms which aid the establishment of these obligate intracellular parasites in the eukaryotic host are ...
  • Bezuidenhout, J.D.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Attempts were made to grow 4 isolates of Cowdria ruminantium in cell lines. Three of these isolates, viz. Ball 3, Welgevonden and Kwanyanga, could be cultivated in a calf endothelial cell line, but experiments with the ...
  • Logan, L.L.; Whyard, T.C.; Quintero, J.C.; Mebus, C.A.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The sequential development of C. ruminantium (Kwanyanga and Kumm isolates) was followed in caprine leukocyte cultures by light microscopy, direct immunofluorescent microscopy (DFA), indirect immunofluorescent microscopy ...
  • Prozesky, L.; Du Plessis, J.L.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Various aspects of the development and life cycle of Cowdria ruminantium are discussed. C. ruminantium is transmitted transstadially by certain Amblyomma species. Apparently organisms initially develop in the gut epithelial ...
  • Logan, L.L.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Blood collected in either sodium heparin or disodium edetate vacutainers from febrile goats infected with 4 isolates of Cowdria ruminantium and cryopreserved with 10% dimethyl sulphoxide at -70⁰C and -196⁰C was an effective ...
  • Yunker, C.E.; Kocan, K.M.; Norval, R.A.I.; Burridge, M.J.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Mallory's phloxine-methylene blue stain was used to differentiate colonies of Cowdria ruminantium in midgut epithelial cells of nymphal Amblyomma hebraeum that had been infected as larvae. Gut tissues were collected from ...
  • Kocan, K.M.; Bezuidenhout, J.D.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The morphology and development of Cowdria ruminantium have been studied in Amblyomma hebraeum and A. variegatum. Colonies of C. ruminantium have so far been demonstrated microscopically in gut, salivary gland cells, ...
  • Prozesky, L.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The morphology of Cowdria ruminantium is described and its staining characteristics in the vertebrate host and in vitro are summarized. Morphologically, the organisms are characterized in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells, ...
  • Bezuidenhout, J.D.; Provost, A.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The first written record of what probably could have been heartwater originates from South Africa and dates back to 1838. Since then, the disease was described from almost all the African countries south of the Sahara ...
  • Van der Merwe, F.J.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
  • Heartwater : Past, Present and Future. Workshop (1986 : Kruger National Park, South Africa); Bezuidenhout, J. Dürr; Olivier, J.A.; Gruss, B.; Badenhorst, J.V.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    The efficacy of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal inoculation of heartwater infective blood or nymph suspensions was tested in 5 experiments involving a total of 199 sheep. The success rate of subcutaneous ...
  • Heartwater : Past, Present and Future. Workshop (1986 : Kruger National Park, South Africa); Spickett, Arthur M.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    Socio-economic factors and environmental considerations have increasingly encouraged the search for methods of tick control other than acaricidal treatment. Biological control management regimes have, so far, not proved ...
  • Heartwater : Past, Present and Future. Workshop (1986 : Kruger National Park, South Africa); Bigalke, R.D.; Bigalke, R.D. (Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1987)
    This article highlights the most important research goals identified during the workshop on "Heartwater: Past, Present and Future," which was held from 8-11 September 1986 in the Republic of South Africa. An attempt has ...
  • Horak, Ivan Gerard; Heartwater : Past, Present and Future. Workshop (1986 : Kruger National Park, South Africa); Petney, T.N.; Bigalke, R.D. (Pretoria : Government Printer, 1987)
    Domestic stock on a farm 30 km north of Grahamstown were treated with an acaricide at regular intervals over a period of several years. This resulted in a marked reduction in all stages of development of Amblyomma hebraeum ...

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