The Ceratocystis paradoxa complex accommodates a group of fungal pathogens that
have become specialized to infect mostly monocotyledonous plants. Four species currently are
recognized in this group, including C. paradoxa, which has a widespread distribution and broad
host range. In this study, multigene phylogenetic analyses involving sequences of the ITS, β-
tubulin and TEF-1α gene loci, in combination with phenotypic and mating studies, were used to
characterize purported C. paradoxa isolates from Cameroon and to compare them with isolates
from elsewhere, including protologs and type specimens of known species. We show that the C.
paradoxa complex comprises substantially greater species diversity than previously recognized.
One new species in this group is described from Cameroon as Ceratocystis Cerberus, while C.
paradoxa sensu. stricto (s. str.) and four other species are redefined. Lectotypes are designated for C. ethacetica and Endoconidium fragrans (synonym of C. ethacetica), while epitypes are
designated for C. paradoxa s. str., C. ethacetica and C. musarum. A neotype was designated for
Catenularia echinata (synonym of C. ethacetica) and two species, previously treated in
Thielaviopsis, are transferred to Ceratocystis.