Survival rates and causes of mortality of leopards Panthera pardus in southern Africa

Show simple item record Swanepoel, Lourens Hendrik Somers, Michael J. Van Hoven, Wouter Schiess-Meier, Monika Owen, Gailey Snyman, Andrei Martins, Quinton Senekal, Charl Camacho, Gerrie C. Boshoff, Willem Dalerum, Fredrik 2014-09-11T09:55:10Z 2014-09-11T09:55:10Z 2015-10
dc.description.abstract Estimation of survival rates is important for developing and evaluating conservation options for large carnivores. However, telemetry studies for large carnivores are often characterized by small sample sizes that limit meaningful conclusions. We used data from 10 published and 8 unpublished studies of leopards Panthera pardus in southern Africa to estimate survival rates and investigate causes of leopard mortality. Mean survival rates were significantly lower in non-protected (0.55 ± SE 0.08) compared to protected areas (0.88 ± 0.03). Inside protected areas juveniles had significantly lower survival (0.39 ± 0.10) compared to subadults (0.86 ± 0.07) and adults (0.88 ± 0.04). There was a greater difference in cause of death between protected and non-protected areas for females compared to males, with people being the dominant cause of mortality outside protected areas for both females and males. We suggest there is cause for concern regarding the sustainability of leopard populations in South Africa, as high female mortality may have severe demographic effects and a large proportion of suitable leopard habitat lies in non-protected areas. However, because a large proportion of deaths outside protected areas were attributed to deliberate killing by people, we suggest that management interventions may have the potential to increase leopard survival dramatically. We therefore stress the urgency to initiate actions, such as conflict mitigation programmes, to increase leopard survival in non-protected areas. en_US
dc.description.librarian am2014 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The International Foundation of Science (D/4984-1), Wild Foundation (2008-011), Wilson Foundation and the University of Pretoria. LHS was further supported by the National Research Foundation (74819), FD by the National Research Foundation and a research fellowship from the University of Pretoria, and MJS by the Department of Science and Technology Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology and the National Research Foundation. en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Swanepoel, LH, Somers, MJ, Van Hoven, W, Schiess-Meier, M, Owen, C, Snyman, A, Martins, Q, Senekal, C, Camacho, G, Boshoff, W & Dalerum, F 2015, 'Survival rates and causes of mortality of leopards Panthera pardus in southern Africa', Oryx, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 595-603. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0030-6053 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1365-3008 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1017/S0030605313001282
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press en_US
dc.rights © 2014 Fauna & Flora International en_US
dc.subject Africa en_US
dc.subject Conflict en_US
dc.subject Cox proportional model en_US
dc.subject Leopard en_US
dc.subject Mortality en_US
dc.subject Panthera pardus en_US
dc.subject Survival rate en_US
dc.title Survival rates and causes of mortality of leopards Panthera pardus in southern Africa en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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