The role of complex learning environments in the mediation of knowledge construction is examined. The research incorporated activity theory and recent trends in complexity theory and chaos theory. Our main aim was to describe how an understanding of cognition as a
complex system can facilitate the challenge of addressing diversity by spawning cognitive interventions that can tolerate and address complexity and non-linearity in thinking and problem-solving. A design experiment format was used for data collection as design experiments lend themselves to the study of cognition in natural and complex settings. Results suggested complex learning environments
may be particularly well-suited to the mediation of knowledge acquisition skills, metacognitive awareness, and critical thinking skills.